When traders talk of trading the skew, they are generally talking about trying to predict the slope of the implied volatility curve plotted against strikes or deltas and choosing an option position that profits if their view is correct. Talking put call parity for options and future trading. Pariry Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the point at which the strike is equal to the prevailing spot price of the underlying. Many exotic options are paid for in instalments or have premiums whose payment or the timing of whose payment is contingent upon some event.
In financial mathematicsloojback parity defines a relationship between the price of a European call option and European put optionboth with the identical strike price and expiry, namely that a portfolio of a long call option and a short put option is equivalent to lookack hence has the same value as a single forward contract at this strike price and expiry. This is because if the price at expiry is above the strike price, the call will be exercised, while if it is below, the put will be exercised, and thus in either case one unit of the asset will be purchased for the strike price, exactly as in a forward contract.
The validity of this relationship requires that certain assumptions be lookbacm these are specified and the relationship derived below. In practice transaction costs and financing costs leverage mean this relationship will not exactly hold, but in liquid markets the relationship is close to exact. Put—call parity is a static replicationand thus requires minimal assumptions, namely the existence of a forward contract. In the absence of traded forward contracts, the forward contract can be replaced indeed, itself replicated by the ability to buy the underlying asset and finance this by borrowing for fixed term e.
These assumptions do not require any transactions between the initial date and expiry, and are thus significantly weaker than those of the Black—Scholes modelwhich requires dynamic replication and continual transaction in the underlying. Replication assumes one can enter into derivative transactions, which requires leverage and capital costs to back thisand buying and opption entails transaction costsnotably the bid-ask spread. The relationship thus only holds exactly in an ideal frictionless market with unlimited liquidity.
However, real world markets may be sufficiently liquid that the relationship is close to exact, most significantly FX markets caall major currencies or major stock indices, in the absence of oookback turbulence. Note that the spot price is given by. The left side corresponds to a portfolio of long a call and short a put, while the right side corresponds to a forward contract. The assets C and P on the left side are given in current values, while the assets F and K are given in future values forward price of asset, and strike price paid lookbadk expirywhich the discount factor D converts to present values.
In this case the left-hand side is a fiduciary callwhich is long a call and enough cash or bonds to pay the strike price if the call professional forex traders wanted guitar exercised, while the right-hand side is put call parity lookback option youtube protective putwhich is long a put and the asset, so the asset can be sold for the strike price if the spot is below strike at expiry.
Both sides have payoff max S TK at expiry i. Note that the right-hand side of the equation is also the price of buying a forward contract on the stock with delivery price K. Thus one way to read the equation is that a portfolio that is long a call and short a put is the same as being long a forward. In particular, if the underlying is not tradeable but there exists forwards on it, we can replace the right-hand-side expression by the price of a forward. If the bond interest rate. However, one should take care with the approximation, especially with larger rates and larger time periods.
When valuing European options written on stocks with known dividends that will be paid out during the life of the option, the formula becomes: where D t represents the total value of the dividends from one stock share to be paid out over the remaining life of the options, discounted to present value.
We can rewrite the equation as: and note that the right-hand side is the price of a forward contract on the stock with delivery price Kas before. We will suppose that the put and call options are on traded stocks, but the underlying can be any other tradeable asset. The ability to buy and sell the underlying is crucial to the "no arbitrage" argument below.
First, note that under the assumption that there are no arbitrage opportunities the prices are arbitrage-freetwo portfolios that always have the same payoff at time T must have the same value at any prior time. To prove this suppose olokback, at some time t before Tone portfolio were put call parity lookback option youtube than the other. Then one could purchase go long the cheaper portfolio and sell go short the more expensive.
At time Tour overall portfolio would, for any value of the share price, have zero value all the assets and liabilities have canceled out. The profit we made at time t is thus a riskless profit, but this violates our assumption of no arbitrage. We will derive the put-call parity relation by creating two portfolios with the same payoffs static replication and invoking the above principle rational pricing. Consider a call option and a put option with the same strike K for expiry at the same date T put call parity lookback option youtube some stock Swhich pays no dividend.
We assume the existence of a yoytube that pays 1 dollar at maturity time T. The bond price may be random like the stock but must equal 1 at maturity. Let the price of S be S t at time t. Now assemble a portfolio by buying a call option C and selling a put option P of the same maturity T and strike K. The payoff for this portfolio is S T - K. Now assemble a second portfolio by buying one share and borrowing K bonds. Note the payoff of the latter portfolio is also S T - K at time Tsince our share bought for S t will be worth S T and the borrowed bonds will be worth K.
By our preliminary observation that identical payoffs imply that both portfolios must have the same price at a general time. In the case of dividends, the modified formula can be derived in similar manner to above, but with the modification that one portfolio consists of going long a call, going short a put, and D T bonds that each pay 1 dollar at maturity T the bonds will be worth D t at time t ; the other portfolio is the same as before - long one share of stock, short K bonds that each pay 1 dollar at T.
The difference is put call parity lookback option youtube at time Tthe stock is not only worth S T but has paid out D T in dividends. Forms of put-call parity appeared in practice as early as medieval ages, and was formally described by a number of authors in the early 20th century. Lookbaci Knoll, in The Ancient Roots of Modern Financial Innovation: The Early History of Regulatory Arbitragedescribes the important role that put-call parity played in developing the equity of redemptionthe defining characteristic oprion a modern mortgage, in Medieval England.
In the 19th century, financier Russell Sage used put-call parity to create synthetic loans, which had higher interest opgion than the usury laws of the time would have normally allowed. His book was re-discovered by Espen Gaarder Haug in the early s and many references from Nelson's book are given in Haug's book "Derivatives Models on Models". Henry Deutsch describes the put-call parity in in his book "Arbitrage in Bullion, Coins, Bills, Stocks, Shares and Options, 2nd Edition".
London: Engham Wilson but in less detail than Nelson Mathematics professor Vinzenz Bronzin also derives the put-call parity in and uses it as part of his arbitrage argument to develop a series of mathematical option models under a series of different distributions. The work of otpion Bronzin was just recently rediscovered by professor Wolfgang Hafner and professor Heinz Zimmermann. The original work of Bronzin is a book written in German and is now translated and published in English in an edited work by Hafner and Zimmermann "Vinzenz Bronzin's option pricing models", Springer Verlag.
Its first description in the youtybe academic literature appears to be Stoll From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Options, Futures and Other Derivatives 5th ed. Stock market index future. Collateralized put call parity lookback option youtube obligation CDO. Constant proportion portfolio insurance. Power reverse dual-currency note PRDC. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.
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Option Terminology Glossary – Greeks, exotics and volatility see put - call parity. Call option: Option Terminology Glossary – Greeks, exotics and. Option (call ; exotic; put) Security; Stock; Time deposit To find the credit spread breakeven points for call spreads, the net premium is added to the lower strike. the price of the lookback call option with floating strike is the price of the lookback put option with floating strike is Put – call parity ; Simulation;.